ABC Model

A + B = C Model

Most of us tend to think that challenging events occur and they automatically trigger the fight/flight response, however this is not correct.  There is another stage that happens after the event and influences whether the event will trigger the fight/flight response.  Dr Albert Ellis, founder of a form of talking therapy called Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (very similar to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy), identified the role that our thoughts, beliefs and self-talk play in triggering the fight/flight response.  He called this the A+B=C equation.


A = Activating Event

Activating events are the triggers that cause us potential stress.  As previously mentioned in Session 1 of this course there are different types of stressors.  There are the Life Event stressors, such as the death of a loved one, which are fortunately fairly rare; the majority of us would find these life events difficult and stressful.  Then there are the more common stressors called Daily Hassles.  Not everybody exposed to these daily hassles finds them stressful and this is partly because our individual beliefs, thoughts and perceptions about the daily hassles will determine if the event is stressful to us or not.


B = Beliefs

When we are born we come into this world with no beliefs, opinions, views or perceptions. From the moment we can talk and listen we start to learn the opinions of our parents, our peers, school etc.  We automatically start to use these beliefs as a template to interpret ourselves, other people and the world in general.  The problem is that other people may not necessarily have the same template, views and beliefs as us.  We use our beliefs to interpret what is happening to us. These beliefs may be accurate, possible, flexible and optimistic, these types of beliefs and thinking skills can help to reduce stress, however a lot of beliefs can be in the form of automatic negative thoughts and if they are rigid, negative, inflexible and pessimistic then this can exacerbate any stress we are under.  Fortunately it is possible to change our beliefs and so reduce our stress, the skills to do this are in Session 5.


C = Consequences

The final part of the A+B=C equation is Consequences.  Consequences refer to the feelings that occur as a consequence of our beliefs and self-talk in response to the activating event.  The consequences can be in the form of stress, anxiety, depression, anger, irritability, aggression, fear, worry, and frustration etc.


“We can’t always influence what others may say or do to us – but we CAN influence how we react TO it!”

Mary Wollstonecraft’s famous quotes

No man chooses evil because it is evil; he only mistakes it for happiness, the good he seeks.
Surely something resides in this heart that is not perishable – and life is more than a dream.
Taught from infancy that beauty is woman’s sceptre, the mind shapes itself to the body, and roaming round its gilt cage, only seeks to adorn its prison.
If women be educated for dependence; that is, to act according to the will of another fallible being, and submit, right or wrong, to power, where are we to stop?
How can a rational being be ennobled by any thing that is not obtained by its own exertions?
I do not wish them [women] to have power over men; but over themselves.
Make women rational creatures, and free citizens, and they will quickly become good wives; – that is, if men do not neglect the duties of husbands and fathers.
Women ought to have representatives, instead of being arbitrarily governed without any direct share allowed them in the deliberations of government.
I do earnestly wish to see the distinction of sex confounded in society, unless where love animates the behaviour.
The beginning is always today.

Biographies Research

Mary Wollstonecraft

Mary was the second child, and eldest girl, in a family of seven.


Wollstonecraft’s early years were spent, with her family, in following her feckless and violent father across England and Wales
In 1783, she helped her sister Eliza escape a miserable marriage by hiding her from a brutal husband until a legal separation was arranged.

The two sisters established a school at Newington Green, an experience from which Mary drew to write Thoughts on the Education of Daughters: With Reflections on Female Conduct, in the More Important Duties of Life (1787)

In 1792, she published her Vindication of the Rights of Woman, an important work which, advocating equality of the sexes, and the main doctrines of the later women’s movement, made her both famous and infamous in her own time.
Education held the key to achieving a sense of self-respect and anew self-image that would enable women to put their capacities to good use.

in 1795 Wollstonecraft attempted to commit suicide by jumping off Putney Bridge as her husband Imlay deserted her.

Mary Wollstonecraft was a radical in the sense that she desired to bridge the gap between mankind’s present circumstances and ultimate perfection. She was truly a child of the French Revolution and saw a new age of reason and benevolence close at hand. Mary undertook the task of helping women to achieve a better life, not only for themselves and for their children, but also for their husbands. Of course, it took more than a century before society began to put her views into effect.

Power and prelude

We have been set a two week task to create a short project on the book “the man who mistook his wife for a hat” by Oliver Sacks

I read the book and then researched further into Agnosia which was caused by damage to the brain






I brainstormed a few ideas about what I could create for my short project.

The final outcome was to create a book cover, however because of the time limit I found myself struggling to create the final outcome.

Here is my process

I gave myself rules to stick with throughout this project

I then researched into artist Franco Clun because I wanted to create a portrait of Mr. P, to literally show what he is suffering from.

I then started to look into brain scans from people suffering from brain damage. I researched into this because I wanted the reader of the book to have a slight insight to what the book would be about.

I have now started to experiment with colour and add quotes from the book itself.




I have now began to brainstorm ideas for the cover. There will be a portrait of Mr. P with his brain appearing out of his skull.
I want to add UV paint to the final outcome.
I have decided when I illustrate Mr. P’s portrait I’m not going to add eyes, nose and a mouth. This will illustrate Agnosia.
The UV paint will then illustrate these features when the UV light is shown.


I’ve now started painting colours of the brain scan to create a background for the final cover.



I have now begun the process of Mr. P




I am now going to add UV Paint for the features.


The brain has also got UV on it because I want to show the public that the brain is the reason for the facial features not to be shown